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   Problem Statement  

 Problem Statement for TorusSailing

Problem Statement

    

Fox Ciel is sailing in the Donut sea. The Donut sea is a torus. For navigation, the torus is divided into N times M cells, as shown in the figure below.





(Image by YassineMrabet from Wikimedia Commons, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.)



Each of the cells has two integer coordinates (n, m), where 0 <= n < N and 0 <= m < M. Note that the coordinates wrap around modulo N and M. For example, if you are in the cell (N-1, M-1) and you cross over one of its sides, you will reach one of the cells (N-2, M-1), (0, M-1), (N-1, M-2), and (N-1, 0).



Ciel starts in the cell (0, 0) and wants to reach the goal cell (goalX, goalY).



Unfortunately, Ciel's navigation is very poor. Whenever she moves to a new cell, there are two equally probable outcomes: either her first or her second coordinate increases by one (wrapping around if necessary). Formally, if Ciel's current coordinates are (n, m), her new coordinates will be either ((n+1) modulo N, m), or (n, (m+1) modulo M), with equal probability. Each such move takes one day.



Return the expected number of days Ciel will need to reach her goal.

 

Definition

    
Class:TorusSailing
Method:expectedTime
Parameters:int, int, int, int
Returns:double
Method signature:double expectedTime(int N, int M, int goalX, int goalY)
(be sure your method is public)
    
 

Notes

-The returned value must have an absolute or relative error less than 1e-9.
 

Constraints

-N will be between 2 and 100, inclusive.
-M will be between 2 and 100, inclusive.
-goalX will be between 0 and N - 1, inclusive.
-goalY will be between 0 and M - 1, inclusive.
-(goalX, goalY) will not be (0, 0).
 

Examples

0)
    
2
2
1
1
Returns: 4.0

She can reach the goal in 2 days with probability 1/2, in 4 days with probability 1/4, in 6 days with probability 1/8, in 8 days with probability 1/16, and so on. In general, she can reach the goal in 2*n days with probability 1/(2^n) where n is a positive integer.

The answer is (2 * 1/2) + (4 * 1/4) + (6 * 1/8) + (8 * 1/16) + ... = 4.0

1)
    
3
3
0
2
Returns: 8.0
2)
    
7
10
3
2
Returns: 51.80060107964039
3)
    
100
100
99
99
Returns: 9992.616372325532

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This problem was used for:
       Single Round Match 614 Round 1 - Division I, Level Three